One of the important environmental conditions for human life is food. Food - a set of inorganic and organic substances derived from the human environment n used them to build and repair tissues, sustain and replenish energy expended.
Law balanced diet that determines the proportion of the individual substances in food rations, reflects the amount of metabolic reactions in the human body. Particular attention is drawn to make food substances not synthesized by the body's enzyme systems.
According to the formula of balanced nutrition daily human need is: 80-100 g of protein, amino acids 66,5-82 g (19-31 g essential), 400-500 g carbohydrates, 2 g of organic acids, fats 80-100 of human needs identified in micro-and macronutrients, vitamins. Energy value of the diet is 11900 kJ.
The concept of a balanced diet has a great influence on the decision of the major practical problems connected with the foundation of physiological norms of human nutrition, depending on its energy in the process of work and life. Knowledge of the chemical composition of the products was the basis of representations on their biological and nutritional value.
Thus, in research, in practical work related to the production of food and catering, you need to clearly divide the concept of food, biological and energy intake.
Concept of nutritional value rather broadly and includes the energy value of the product, the content of the basic substances organoleptic dignity and reflects full of useful features.
The term biological value reflects the amount of protein components of the product associated with both protein digestibility and balance it with the degree of amino acid composition.
The term describes the energy value of the fraction of energy that can be released from the nutrients in the process of biological oxidation and ispolzovaniyaee for physiological functions of the body. Energy value of individual nutrients in the oxidation of 1 g in the body is (kJ) -16.7 proteins, fats - 37,7, carbohydrates - 15.7, acids (acetic, malic, lactic, citric) - 2.5-3 , 5.
Man's food consists of fresh foods of plant and animal origin, prepared from such dishes at home and in public catering, as well as products of industrial processing plant and animal materials. The latter include foods, preserved by various methods.
Increased production, production, diversification, improvement of product quality to be implemented through a unified technical policy and accelerate the growth of scientific and technological progress. Planned to bring the processing industry to places of cultivation of raw materials, building businesses small and medium power directly to state and collective farms.
One of the directions of technical progress - improvement of production technology. The main requirements are creating advanced technology intensification of technological processes, creating continuity and threading.
Another area of scientific and technological progress in the processing of fruit and vegetable industry is the creation of complex raw processing technology, which provides recovery of all materials contained in the mineral components.
Industrial processing of fruits, vegetables imposes certain requirements for raw materials. It must contain the necessary quantity of nutrients and be similar in composition, texture and size. These parameters depend on material consumption of manufactured products, the quality of products, the possibility of comprehensive mechanization and automation of production processes.