In the formation of market relations in the CIS in the 1990s and appeared became actively develop new scientific and practical direction - logistics. Interest in it due to the needs of economic and business development, increased volumes of freight traffic. Initially, efforts were directed to firms mainly to reduce the production cost of production. At the moment, when the proposal was widely exceed demand, entrepreneurs have begun to recognize the importance of ensuring sales by reducing transport (diesel fuel rose) and storage costs.
New principles of organization and management, based on conceptual approaches and methods of thinking, is the general concept of "logistics", increasingly and successfully used in practice most effectively functioning enterprises, transport companies, firms and associations.
Methods combined logistics organization and management of the different phases, stages and aspects of economic activity. Often use the following definition: "Logistics - the science of the management of information and material flows in the movement of goods." Although it should be noted that an unambiguous definition of logistics did not exist, as the authors wittingly or unwittingly brings to the fore certain aspects of logistic management.
Consider the origin of the term "logistics" (English - logistics). Most researchers agree on the fact that the semantics of the word dates back to ancient Greece, where "logistike" means "countable art" or "art of reasoning, calculation". In the Roman Empire under the logistics of food distribution to understand the rules. During the Byzantine emperor Leo VI (866-912 gg.) Was defined as the art of logistics supply the army and control its movements. In particular, the German researcher, Professor G. Pavellek notes appointment of logistics in the Byzantine Empire was "pay salaries army properly arm and subdivide it to supply arms and military equipment, on time and in full care of her needs and accordingly prepare every act of a military campaign, ie calculate the space and time to make a correct analysis of the area in terms of the movement of the army, as well as forces of resistance and in accordance with these functions to manage and run a word, dispose of the motion and distribution of its own armed forces ".
Historically, one can trace the interpretation of the term that has come to our days.
It involves the application of logistics in the military field. Apparently, the impetus for the development of military logistics were the fundamental works of the famous military theorist of the XIX century. AA Baron Jomini (1779-1869 gg.), in which he defined as a practical art logistics command and control, including a wide range of issues related to planning, management and supply is definitely a place where troops, army transport service, and so n .
Currently, there are many types of logistics. Here are some of them:
1. Freight logistics
2. Warehouse logistics (logistics warehousing)
3. Commercial logistics
4. Information logistics
5. Marketing logistics
6. Procurement logistics
7. Production logistics
8. Industrial logistics
9. Logistics distribution (distribution or marketing logistics)
And bolshenstvo of them overlaps. This becomes clear from the definition of such problems of transport logistics. The main objectives of which is to ensure trucking goods; minimizing the cost of cargo transportation; finding optimal routes for cargo transportation; search and selection of forwarders; transport company - the carrier, delivery planning; competent registration and conclusion of contracts and contracts for cargo transportation, sale of goods; customs clearance; ensure optimal delivery schemes cargo in intermodal transport; Consolidation (association) of goods in transit; office moving; warehousing; harmonization of other issues with the shipper and consignee, etc.